Human Trafficking in 21st century

Author: Amisha Tandon pursuing BA LLB (H) from Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi HUMAN TRAFFICKING IS A PANDEMIC: “PEOPLE WERE CREATED TO BE LOVED. THINGS WERE CREATED TO BE USED.THE REASON WHY THE WORLD IS IN CHAOS IS BECAUSE THINGS ARE BEING LOVED AND PEOPLE ARE BEING USED.” HUMAN TRAFFICKING is a practice or action of illegal export and import of human beings for the purposes of forced labour and sexual exploitation from one country or area to another. In other words, human beings are sold out with an intention to exploit them for personal benefits by transferring them from developing countries to developed countries or within the border of respective country. It is a typical trading of human beings, which has been exercised from past thousands of years till now and it has become the most often committed crime because human trading is considered to be the highest source of criminals for earning money in 21st century as it runs like a red thread through human history. The gist intention of a human trafficker is exploitation, coercion, deception, enforcement and the most common reason of being trafficked is poverty, lack of prospects and belief in better future, corruption, some people just trafficked after getting kidnapped or the reason may be high migration, but this also lead to cause human smuggling, which is slightly different from human trafficking as human smuggling is consist of only international transfer whereas human trafficking is done within as well as outside country’s territorial line. As an example, it includes forced prostitution (mostly females), slavery and trading of human body organs after kidnapping (mostly teenagers), low paid wage at construction sites (males) or employment at hotels and caterings (both genders). Now, for understanding the core of this crime, looking upon the statistics is essential, International Labour Organisation measured approximate calculation of people who are trapped in forced labour or human trafficking is 20.9 Million which leads to profit amounting 150 billion USD annually. INFRINGMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS: Human trafficking encroaches human rights in an authentic way by just invading basic human rights which are required to survive with dignity such as person’s right to life, freedom, privacy, protection, speech & expression, movement, trade, health, equality and any right concerning employment protection. Human Rights are those rights which are interpreted by the countries and their cultures differently with the needs of changing society. In December, 1948 human rights got certification by UNITED NATIONS under the UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS which has included the ideals of WORLDWIDE SOCIETY DEVOID OF SLAVERY. Still, no country is immune to human trafficking, as this crime continues to be committed right under our noses, and by men and women in suits. The extreme and prime case of human trafficking is of 3,200 YAJIDI WOMEN and GIRLS, a monotheist-ethno religious group living in the northern part of Iraq, who were victims of systematic enslavement and abducted in SINJAR in August, 2014. These women and girls were trafficked to Sinjar for its campaign to “purify” Iraq and its neighbouring countries of its non-Islamists influences, where they were subjected to forced religion conversion, forced marriage, rape, sexual abuse, forced abortions, physical & mental abuse, forced labour and much more, simply which made their life not worth living. CRIME OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN INDIA: India is a country where its economic growth has allowed the country to achieve Millennium Development Goal of reducing 50% of poverty. However states such as Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha are the states which are counted in low income states and persisting to face poverty rate that is inordinately greater than other states, with 62% of poor population residing in these states. People migrate in search of employment opportunities, which comes up as a powerful incentive showing country’s vulnerability and giving rise to the crime of human trafficking. Thus, human trading is not the end goal of a criminal committing human trafficking as it is a beginning for human beings to be exploited in number of ways. In 21st century, crimes have become so heinous, that criminal moulds the opportunities made by Government for betterment of country into their personal betterment through loosing sense of humanity in them. One of the shocking example is human trafficking in removal of body organs where increment in kidney and liver diseases have added to the expansion in demand and supply of organs. With the 2011 Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act permitting only a closest relative to be a living donor, there has been a expansion in organ traffickers carrying out unauthorized conduct and falsifying documents to show donors and recipients as family. In some regions of India, poor and needy people use their kidneys as collateral for money lenders. Researchers and analyst have documented cases of kidneys sourced from the “kidney belt” region of southern India being sold to clients in Sri Lanka, the Gulf States, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Then looking at the factor i.e. Forced Marriages that starts with a Female foeticide which is a widespread phenomenon in India and has contributed to a shortage in women, such as in the state of Haryana, where there are only 830 girls for every 1,000 boys. Evidence shows that there is a growing tendency for brides to move from the poorer eastern or southern parts of the country to the more affluent areas in the north where there is a higher and surpassing male to female sex ratio. The skewed sex ratio in some regions in India is fuelling trafficking and selling of brides within India. Women are reportedly traded into marriage by their families, sometimes at a young age, and end up suffering severe abuse, rape, and exploitation by their husbands. RESPONSE TO THE STRUGGLE OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING: “THE DOORS WILL BE OPENED TO THOSE WHO ARE BOLD ENOUGH TO KNOCK.” Human Trafficking is a universal misfortune of the 21st century that needs not only public attention but also productive remedy from the worldwide community. Today, the United Nations is the only organization that bought the crime of human trafficking in spotlight and gave attention towards the criminal justice of the crime related to human trafficking. Well-balanced and well- organised, together with the INTER AGENCY COORDINATION GROUP AGAINST TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS (ICAT), a policy forum authorized by UN General Assembly to assist the progress of the process of preventing and combating trafficking in person and THE VOLUNTARY TRUST FUND FOR VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING, which operates as a subsidiary fund to provide humanitarian, legal and financial help and assistance to victims of trafficking through governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the UN is trying to work out measures that will reduce human trafficking. In 2015, the European Union (EU) and UNODC in partnership with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) launched the Global Action to Prevent and Address Trafficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants (GLO.ACT). Despite the fact that the international community pays attention and vigorously attempts to take measures against human trafficking and establish a plan of action towards remedy to this dilemma, but an increasing rate of victims suffering human trafficking shows the complexity of the problem. Every country individually should look upon the remedy for their respective states so that the criminality won’t be able to give birth. It is not just plenitude to embrace resolutions and initiatives, individual countries require concrete practical steps undertaken jointly by international organizations and all the countries taking stand for human rights, international peace and security. The worldwide society should accomplish comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation to prosecute traffickers, by providing tenacious prosecution of criminals and greater support and protection for victims. In every country, there should be a special committee for human trafficking with trained personnel who will be able to identify trafficking victims, investigate cases and provide law enforcement on prosecuting trafficking cases. “THE ONLY THING REQUIRED FOR THE TRIUMPH OF EVIL IS FOR GOOD MEN TO DO NOTHING.” It should be also understood that the problem of human trafficking has its roots in other important and severe challenges of today’s world, such as unequal economic development, poverty, lack of government protection and flourishing regional conflicts, and it should be resolved in parallel with them. Lack of possibility and belief in a better future along with discrimination and inequity, political persecution, corruption and insufficient implementation of laws also lead to people being trafficked. Each country should improve their socio-economic status by eradicating modern slavery from economy, by strengthening legislations, by making committees that are coordinating as well as transparent ,by improving support to victim and by addressing risk factors which will definitely contribute to solving the human trafficking problems. Read More...

Human Trafficking in 21st century